MaxineFultz 4 years ago I just luv owls! DianeDesAutels 4 years ago Species?
PhebeWatlington 4 years ago Wonderful picture! LauraMullican 4 years ago Adorable!!!! MarlyVenhofen 4 years ago Boa noite! Rism 4 years ago This is me and friends in 8hour train. LynnHughes 4 years ago That's creepy! PhebeWatlington 4 years ago Stunning! VikiBanaszak 4 years ago Yup it's winter to them: native to Australia, New Zealand and the south-west Pacific islands. Dad blue With Three Chicks. KittyBuns 4 years ago " Hey dad! Do you like seafood? Rism 4 years ago Woah! So many babies.
Rob Belterman. SarahWuenschel 4 years ago Me and my sister. Ire Cal. DeniseDeniknola 4 years ago Too sad they are in jail. Irene Bruschi. Add New Image. Change image Upload Photo Ooops! Upload Edit Image. Facebook Add watermark. Change Source Title. Lina D. Get the latest inspiring stories via our awesome iOS app!
Download Bored Panda app! What do you think? AnnaDewart 4 years ago. AnnaDewart 4 years ago OK, I know it's for warmth, but what comes to mind is, "all you need is love"! AnnMerritt 4 years ago Beautiful photos, so sweet too.
This Is Not A Caterpillar
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Bandcamp Album of the Day Jan 10, Songs and Photographs by Anthony Wilson. Soft and tender contemporary jazz from Anthony Wilson that takes traditional roots in new directions. Explore music. Craig Wise. Daniel Karrer.
“People whose hearts are like the hearts of birds”: Sharh al-Nawawi | Tulayhah
James Wood. Gary Kennedy. Eigil Moeller. De Beer. Rodney Bickham. David Morrissey. Four years after the initial salvo, Die Like a Dog returned with this epic, two-part performance, captured in November , during the 30th Total Music Meeting, at the Podewil, in Berlin.
Dinosaurs Breathed Like Birds
A leukocytosis, and the differential or type s of WBCs that are increased, can identify underlying disease and give an indication of the most likely causes. The differential count in birds can be affected by bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases, as well as toxins. The types of avian WBCs are the heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, and basophil. Heterophils are equivalent to mammalian neutrophils, with much the same function.
Avian heterophils contain lysosomal enzymes and are bactericidal and phagocytic. They are the first cells to respond to any infectious or inflammatory disease process. Instead of forming a liquid purulent material, avian heterophils form an inspissated, caseous material. This caseous material is then walled off by macrophages and fibrous tissue to form a granuloma. Heterophilia can occur during infection or from stress. Heteropenia is often associated with an overwhelming infection or viral disease. Lymphocytes function in antibody and antigen production and cellular and humoral immune reactions.
Lymphocytosis may occur in chronic infections chlamydial, fungal, mycobacterial or with lymphoid neoplasia.
A Lot Like Birds
Lymphopenia is often associated with viral diseases eg, circovirus or polyomavirus or sepsis. Monocytosis is often associated with chronic granulomatous diseases such as chlamydial, fungal, or mycobacterial infection. Eosinophilia has been reported with parasitic diseases and has also been associated with delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Basophilia can occur during inflammatory conditions and chronic infection. Note: Samples were obtained at wellness examination. No other concurrent disease was detected or treated, except for behavioral concerns. Physiologic differences in birds create variations from accepted mammalian normal values for many biochemical measurements.
Because of the excretion of uric acid rather than urea as the primary product of protein metabolism, uric acid levels are significantly higher in birds than in mammals, whereas BUN is significantly lower. Uric acid may be increased in severe renal disease or with articular gout see Miscellaneous Diseases of Pet Birds. Severe dehydration may increase uric acid levels, but levels return to normal with rehydration.
No reliable biochemical indicator is currently available to detect early renal impairment. Measurement of CK is often performed concurrently to differentiate increased values of AST due to muscle necrosis from those due to hepatic damage. LDH is a short-lived enzyme of limited usefulness in detection of hepatic necrosis. Birds have low bilirubin reductase levels; therefore, total bilirubin is normally also very low, and increases with hepatic disease are not consistent total bilirubin range 0—0.
Birds also do not become icteric with hepatic disease as do mammals; they excrete biliverdin through their kidneys, resulting in yellow or lime-green urates. Establishing reference values for different avian species will enhance the usefulness of bile acid assays. Calcium and phosphorus values are similar to those found in mammals. Total solids as measured via refractometer are significantly lower in birds than in mammals, with levels of 3—5. Total solids can also increase in reproductively active hens.
Increased levels of both triglycerides and cholesterol have been reported in birds fed a high-fat diet. High levels can also be seen in reproductively active females and may be a risk factor in birds that develop atherosclerosis. Omega-3 fatty acids added to the diet as well as dietary restriction and conversion to a pelleted diet have been shown to reduce hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Neonates have some important differences from mature birds in their hematologic and biochemical parameters. The normal adult range is present beginning at 10—12 wk in most species.
Neonates also have lower uric acid values and higher alkaline phosphatase and CK concentrations than adults. Injections can be given by several routes. SC injections are used for fluid administration, some vaccinations, and many routine medications such as antibiotics. Preliminary studies show that the SC route may be as effective as IM injections for most medications, without the associated muscle necrosis.
To ensure that the medication or fluid being injected is actually deposited subcutaneously, the skin must be clearly visualized; use of alcohol to wet the skin and feathers is recommended to aid in visualization. Insulin syringes 50 U or 0. SC fluids are often used in birds. Sites of administration are the lateral flank, the inguinal web, and the back. IM injections are given into the pectoral muscles in most pet birds; leg muscles are also used in some species, particularly raptors.
The muscle fibers of birds are more vascular and tightly packed than those of mammals, making both muscle necrosis and inadvertent IV injection more likely. IV injections are occasionally indicated in birds. Common medications administered IV are some antibiotics, amphotericin B, chemotherapeutic drugs, contrast media, and fluids. Indwelling catheters can be placed in the jugular, basilic, or medial metatarsal veins for constant-rate infusions or intermittent fluid administration.
Intraosseous IO catheters can also be inserted, generally in the proximal tibiotarsal bone or distal ulna. A standard hypodermic needle may be used usually gauge for initial entry, followed by a second gauge needle sutured in place , or a spinal needle with stylet may be used for large birds. Without a stylet or second needle, a bone plug may obstruct the needle.
The IO or IV catheter is intermittently flushed with warm saline whenever fluids are not being infused. Maintaining an IV catheter in an avian patient can be challenging, and IO catheters are often preferable for longterm fluid therapy. However, fluid therapy via IO catheters can be painful to the bird, especially after 1—2 days. Commercial formulas are available and convenient to use.
Oral medications may be added to the crop feeding or given directly by mouth. The technique of holding the bird so that the medication is administered into the commissure of the mouth and rolls onto the tongue will minimize stress, loss of medication, and the danger of aspiration. Medicating birds can be quite difficult for owners; wrapping the bird in a towel for administration of medication can be stressful for both the bird and the owner and, in some cases, adversely affect the human-bird bond.
Compounding medications to make them more palatable and in a smaller volume can be very helpful in using oral medications. Mixing the flavored medication with favorite foods, juice, or baby food can also help ensure compliance. Medications administered in the water are indicated only in special circumstances such as small flocks of birds or aviary birds not used to handling and would require daily netting and restraint, or in special cases in which an owner cannot handle a bird.
Enrofloxacin and doxycycline in drinking water generally provide adequate blood levels for efficacy. However, lack of accurate dosing, stability of the medication, and palatability make this route undesirable in most cases. Sedation is sometimes desirable for diagnostic or treatment procedures to reduce stress and minimize fear.
Midazolam administered at 0. If the bird is thought to be in pain or discomfort, butorphanol 0. Isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia delivered by face mask can also be used alone or in conjunction with sedation for more prolonged procedures or painful treatments.
Intubation in birds is relatively easy, because the absence of an epiglottis facilitates visibility of the tracheal opening and arytenoids. Fasting before anesthesia should be of minimal duration; fasts of 4—6 hr are typical. Regardless of the duration of the fast, the crop should be palpated for the presence of food or fluid before anesthesia. Delayed crop emptying is common in clinically ill birds. If anesthesia must be administered to a bird with food or water still in the crop, fluid should be removed by a feeding tube if possible, and the head should be elevated for the duration of anesthesia, regardless of whether the bird is intubated.
Endotracheal tubes should be uncuffed, because the absence of a tracheal ligament increases the risk of tracheal necrosis if a cuff is overinflated. Even an uncuffed tube can cause tracheal damage or necrosis; therefore, after the bird is intubated, head movement should be minimized. A small animal ventilator can be used for most birds as small as g and can greatly improve ventilation during anesthesia.
If a mechanical ventilator is not available, manual intermittent positive-pressure ventilation will increase oxygenation in anesthetized birds. A capnograph, pulse oximeter, and Doppler are also useful for anesthetic monitoring. Birds tend to lose body heat rapidly when anesthetized, and maintaining body temperature during prolonged anesthesia or surgery is crucial for recovery. Birds with feather loss are more at risk of hypothermia. Water warming blankets under the bird or Bair Huggers TM can be used effectively to maintain body temperature. An emergency drug sheet and emergency drugs should be readily available whenever a bird is anesthetized.
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